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Here are some EDMS in the UK House of Commons since the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution advocated C&C in 2000

C&C EDMs
TITLE
Date
Number of MPs supporting
The Energy Review, The Kyoto Protocol & Rio + 10
30 10 2001
97
The Archbishop of Canterbury's views on Contraction & Convergence
15 07 2004
47
Contraction & Convergence
18 01 2005
64
G8 and Contraction & Convergence
21 03 2005
168
Contraction & Convergence Approach to Climate Change
29 11 2005
58
Contraction & Convergence
16 06 2008
57

Here are some party political pronouncements on C&C in the UK House of Commons over that time.

Environmental Audit Committee 2004

"Any framework which involves radical emission reductions would in practice resemble
the Contraction & Convergence approach advocated by the Global Commons Institute.
"


Caroline Lucas (Green Party) endorsed C&C (Green Party Policy since 1997) in her recent book Honourable Friends? in 2013.
First elected in 2010 she became the first Green MP to sit on the Environmental Audit Committee (EAC). She was re-elected today (07 05 2015).

Elected in 2001, Colin Challen MP of the UK Labour Party, founded the All-Party Parliamentary Group in Climate Change (APPGCC) in 2005.
Using APPGCC he became the most successful MP in the House of Commons seeking to get realistic organisation to face climate change.

Intrinsic to Colin's work was successfully arguing the case for C&C as the basic template of any realistic global climate strategy.
He was hugely influential - especially through the Envrionmental Audit Committee (EAC) - in shaping and securing the UK Climate Act (2008).

In 2009 EAC began an Enquiry into ‘Targets in the UK Climate Act: - Where did they come from? Were the models upon which they were based valid’?
GCI gave evidence to this enquiry, & showed: -

  • they were derived from C&C but projected the 'wrong rates of C&C'
  • and challenged HMG on their unrealistic 'odds' of their targets keeping within '2 degrees' global temperature rise.

1

GCI Evidence to Enquiry by the UK House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee [EAC 2009]

In 2013 EAC continued this enquiry, "Progress on Carbon Budgets". GCI again gave evidence to this enquiry and: -

  • Building on the C&C template of the UK Climate Act (UKCA), introduced the now widely acclaimed CBAT methodology (C&C is in CBAT 'Domain Two').
  • CBAT 'Domain One' corrects for the omission of feedbacks from climate-modelling behind UKCA after EAC's 2009 Enquiry into the UK Climate Act.

    UK Government Special Representative for Climate Change Sir David King endorsed CBAT thus: -

    "I understand the need to include feedback-related emissions.
    It is important to deal with worst-case scenarios, and clearly this includes feed-back effects.
    At this point however, they are difficult to quantify or even estimate, however important.
    Converting this into impacts is what the CBAT programme deals with and it is obviously a great piece of work."

h f

D1. Contraction & Concentrations (science); D2. Contraction & Convergence (politics); D3. Contraction & Conversion (technology); D4. Damages & Growth (economics)

While taking evidence from GCI to this enquiry "Progress on Carbon Budgets" in 2013, the EAC Chair Joan Walley stated: -

"Our starting point is your concept of contraction and convergence. The starting point for us in the current inquiry that we are doing is whether or not you feel that the Climate Change Act targets as we have them are set in accordance with the principles of contraction and convergence."

Entirely ignoring CBAT, EAC stated this in their final report

Feedback effects

Feedback processes will affect the extent and speed of future climate change. In its 2008 advice on the Climate Change Act and carbon budgets, the CCC stated that some feedback processes, such as the release of natural methane stores from northern wetlands or from the oceans, are “less certain and so are not currently incorporated” into climate models, including those of the Met Office.

Aubrey Meyer from the Global Commons Institute was concerned that the Met Office had not included feedbacks in its climate modelling in 2008, which he believed had contributed to the Climate Change Act targets being “inadequate, opaque, prescriptive and misleading”. He believed also that more recently some feedback effects had been omitted from the Met Office modelling, including emissions released from warming permafrost, loss of albedo reflectivity from the Arctic and a “viral attack” on organisms that contribute to the ‘carbon sink’ effect of the ocean.

To improve transparency, he advocated measuring and budgeting for ‘human’ emissions separately from ‘feedback’ emissions. He argued that the feedback effect from melting permafrost made it impossible to secure the eventual reduction in global emissions projected by the Met Office and the CCC. He was unable to put values on all feedbacks, but assessed that carbon budgets should be based on limiting greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to 200ppm.

This compared with CO2 levels already reaching 391ppm in 2011 and continuing to grow at 2ppm over the past decade.
Earlier this year several monitoring stations measured concentrations of CO₂ at 400ppm.

This amounted to grand negligence. Since that report empirical evidence has been coming of feedbacks starting to take hold.
UKMO's dismissal of the criticsm levelled against them was clearly rebutted here. In suggesting that they have dealt with
feedback-effects adequately, UKMO (not really challenged by EAC) have been proved decisively wrong.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

7

The Global Commons Institute said that the origins of the advice from the Committee on Climate Change could be traced back to advocacy by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution of contraction & convergence in their report Energy - the Changing Climate published in 2000.

The Global Commons Institute promotes contraction and convergence as a means of resolving the impasse in international negotiations. Contraction and convergence is a framework for reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases that envisages global emissions peaking and then gradually falling (contraction). It achieves the reduction in emissions by limiting per capita emissions in such a way that they converge (convergence).

It entails large cuts in per capita emissions for developed countries while allowing developing countries to continue growing their economies before they have to make cuts to reach equal per capita emissions. Lord Turner said that the advice of the Committee on Climate Change was, reasonably pragmatically close to Contraction and Convergence.

Carbon Budgets Volume 1
House of Commons: Environmental Audit Committee

8

Question: - Where did the UK budgets come from? Are they adequate to keep within the 2 degree limit?

  1. The UK budgets came from Contraction and Convergence via the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution [RCEP] 2000 report Energy;The Changing Climate. The report recommended C&C but applied it at rates that are too slow to keep within the 2 degree limit.
  2. To keep within the 2 degrees Celsius temperature limit, the budgets need to be based on a global emissions contraction of 80% by 2050 and where the airborne fraction may still stay constant @ 50% giving a 450 ppmv outcome. But with sinks failing @ 0.5%/yr, the outcome only may still be 450ppmv.
  3. By not taking account of the new Coupled-Carbon-Cycle modelling in IPCC AR4 Chapter 10 [2007], the UK Climate Change Committee models and the assumptions used by the Committee on Climate Change are not valid in setting carbon budgets.
  4. There is unanimous agreement among the coupled climate carbon cycle models driven by emission scenarios run so far that future climate change would reduce the efficiency of the Earth system (land and ocean) to absorb anthropogenic CO2. There is evidence that the CO2 airborne fraction is increasing, so accelerating the rate of climate change.
  5. Until about 1800 the overall climate system was at equilibrium. The very sudden rise of the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and CH4 since then shows that the system is no longer in conditions of homeorhesis, it is going out of control.
  6. JokeWaller Hunter, Executive Secrearty of the UNFCCCCOP-9 in Milan in 2003 said, Achieving the goal of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change inevitably requires contraction and convergence.
  7. The basis on which the UK Committee on Climate Change arrived at the UK share of the global effort to cut emissions was the RCEP and their advocacy of Contraction and Convergence.
  8. Convergence to equal per capita emissions entitlements globally for example by 2020, would reflect the C&C principle where, if contraction must be accelerated for reasons of urgency, convergence must be accelerated relative to that for reasons of equity.
  9. There appears to be an emerging consensus for Contraction and Convergence as the UNFCCC-compliant global framework for climate mitigation, as evidenced in the reference material attached to this memorandum.
  10. There is real danger of not doing enough soon enough to avoid dangerous rates of climate change.
  11. But with sinks failing @ 0.5%/yr, the outcome only may still be 450ppmv.
  12. In concert with others, the UK Government aim is to limit overal global temperature above pre-industrial to no more than two degrees Celsius. Not exceeding 450 ppmv CO2 in the atmosphere is considered a pre-requisite of keeping within that limit.
  13. Enforcing the right target will be no harder than enforcing the wrong target.

Carbon Budgets Volume 2 - the evidence
House of Commons: Environmental Audit Committee

6

Under C&C some developing countries, such as India and Indonesia, might only be permitted to increase emissions for a very limited period, after which time they would be required to reduce them. Other developing countries like Thailand and Venezuela, which have relatively high per capita emissions, would be required to reduce emissions immediately.

However, it has been argued that that C&C could provide an equitable framework for a genuine long-term solution to climate change, reducing political
risk and offering businesses and investors the sort of predictable framework they prefer.


Reaching an International Agreement on Climate Change
UK HoC Environmental Audit Committee



Any framework which involves radical emission reductions would in practice resemble the Contraction and Convergence approach advocated by the Global Commons Institute. Indeed, in terms of domestic policy aims, the UK Government has already implicitly accepted this approach in adopting the 60% carbon reduction target for 2050; and it is therefore inconsistent not to adopt such an approach internationally. We do not see any credible alternative and none was suggested in evidence to our inquiry. We therefore recommend that the UK Government should formally adopt and promote Contraction and Convergence as the basis for future inter-national agreements to reduce emissions. We would urge the Government not to see its role during 2005 as being simply to broker international discussion. It should rather provide leadership by promoting specific objectives and targets. In that light we would make the following recommendations: (Paragraph 101) The UK Government should commit itself to Contraction and Convergence as the framework within which future inter-national agreements to tackle climate change are negotiated; and it should actively seek to engage support for this position during 2005 in advance of the next Conference of the Parties. Within the UNFCCC negotiating framework, the UK should press for a review of the adequacy of the commitments in the Convention, and focus its efforts on the need to agree more challenging absolute emission reduction targets within a post-2012 agreement.

The International Challenge of Climate Change
UK Leadership in the G8 & EU
[contains extensive evidence, both written and spoken, from GCI to EAC].
UK Hoc Environmental Audit Committee

A - C&C Evidence To House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee
B - C&C Evidence To House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee
C - C&C Evidence To House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee

3

ABSTRACT
Contraction and Convergence (C&C) is the policy framework proposed to the United Nations by the Global Commons Institute (GCI) since 1990. It was agreed in principle at COP-3 Kyoto 19973. Several European Government departments have issued statements supporting C&C since then. Nearly unanimously, the European Parliament passed a resolution in favour of C&C in 1998. Presently, we generate climate change faster than we organise to avoid it. The international diplomatic challenge is to reverse this. The purpose of C&C is to do this. It enables policies and measures to be negotiatied and organised at rates that demonstrably avoid dangerous global climate change. Taking the objective and principles of precaution and equity, as stated in the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC), C&C proposes: -

  1. A full-term contraction budget for global emissions that stabilises the atmosphere at an agreed concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs).
  2. The international sharing of this budget as entitlements resulting from a negotiated rate of convergence to equal shares per person globally by an agreed date within the full-term concentration agreement.
  3. The inter-regional, inter-national and intra-national tradability of these entitlements in an appropriate currency such as International Energy Backed Currency Units [EBCU]1.
  4. Improved understanding of the relationship between an emissions-free economy and concentrations, so rates of C&C evolve under periodic revision.

GHG emissions have so far been closely correlated with economic performance. To date the growth of economies and emissions has occurred mostly in the industrialised countries creating recently a global pattern of increasingly uneconomic expansion and divergence [E&D] and international insecurity. C&C answers E&D in a full-term constitutional, rather than a short-term random manner. It requires a progression from Guesswork to Framework. It enables the pre-distribution of future entitlements to emit GHGs that result from a rate of convergence deliberately accelerated relative to the overall agreed rate of contraction in order to resolve and go beyond inertial argument about historic debt. This synthesis of C&C can redress the dangerous trend imbalance. Built on global rights, resource conservation and sustainable systems, it is needed to guide the economy to a safe and equitable future for all. It builds on the gains and promise of the UN Convention and establishes an approach that is compelling enough to galvanise urgent international support and action with or without Kyoto. Many of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) already support C&C. The Africa Group proposed it to the UNFCCC2 in August 1997. It was the basis of the emissions trade debate at COP-3 in Kyoto, December 1997.3
GCI Evidence to the House of Lords Enquiry

2
"The earlier section on “A Consensus on Targets Plus Means?” outlines some of the points on which consensus would be desirable and on which it might be reached, ranging from targets through a broad policy framework to specific policy measures. In this section we list some of the areas in which measures might be agreed upon. We address two measures - Domestic Tradable Quotas (DTQs) and Contraction and Convergence (C&C) – in more detail, because they featured heavily in a number of submissions. 

Both DTQs and C&C would be consistent with the acknowledgement that there is probably a maximum“safe” atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and that staying below it necessitates a post-Kyoto concentrations-based international framework agreement for stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations. 

The trading of emissions rights under this agreement (a cap-and-trade system) could be based on the C&C and DTQ (or other global and domestic carbon rationing) proposals.It is not our role to judge the merits of C&C. However, we recommend that the proposed climate policy group and the independent body (Recommendation 12) consider whether cross-party support should be given (a) to C&C as an approach to setting international emissions targets, and/or (b) to some form of national carbon-rationing system,  such as DTQs, alongside other means, as an instrument for achieving the targets that a C&C cap would impose on the UK. Consideration of these issues may require further detailed research."


All Party Parliamentary Climate Change Group
Is a Cross-Party Consensus on Climate Change Possible – Or Desirable?
Report of First Inquiry 2006 Prepared by Dr Helen Clayton, Prof Nick Pidgeon, Prof Mark Whitby

CONTENTS
How High will CO2 Go? Front Cover Classic C&C Image Inside Front Cover
Contents 3
Royal Commission Advocates C&C 2000 4
UK Government Responses - Wait and C&C 5
C&C Animation Imagery of IPCC Sink failure 6 - 25
http://www.gci.org.uk/Animations/BENN_C&C_Animation.exe
http://www.gci.org.uk/Animations/BENN_C&C_Animation.hqx
C&C - The Proportionate Response 26 - 29
Scenarios for the Climate Assessment of Climate Risk 30 - 31
Carbon Countdown Campaign 32 - 43
C&C Definition Statement 44 - 47
C&C Chapter in Surviving Climate Change [PLUTO] 48 - 77
C&C Support 78 - 88
C&C Links to further information 89
Comments and Awards re C&C Campaign 90 - 92

C&C Framework for Preventing Dangerous Climate Change - Aubrey Meyer GCI
Meeting with Peter Betts, Director International Climate Change DEFRA, 22nd August 2008

5

Conclusion
The Rapporteur noted that it had been an intelligent discussion around the variants of Contraction and Convergence [Source: Contraction and Convergence (C&C) is the science-based, global climate policy framework proposed to the UN since 1990 by the Global Commons Institute].
Two secular states, India and the EU, appeared to be able to debate religious and ethical subjects such as Equity and Justice. Indian and European ideas had interpenetration over the last three hundred years. He reminded the Seminar that American insistence on a global deal involving China and India had not originally been a blocking tactic and recalled widespread interest in convergence to equal per capita emissions in the months before the
Byrd-Hagel Resolution of the Senate ahead of the Kyoto Conference.

High-Level India-Europe Conference AGCC Potsdam, 27-29 May 2008 Potsdam

13

GCI Evidence to the UK Minister at DEFRA Hilary Benn in November 2007
"Will the Ravens Leave the Tower?" - concerning rates of C&C in the light of Coupled Carbon Cycle
modelling in IPCC AR4.


House of Lords House of Commons Joint Committee on the
Draft Climate Change Bill Draft Climate Change Bill 24 July 2007

The 60% target which the RCEP recommended was based on the adoption of the ‘contraction and convergence’ approach first advocated in 1990 by the Global Commons Institute. Contraction and Convergence involves calculating the maximum global level of emissions which could be regarded as ‘safe’, and apportioning these emissions to countries on an equal per capita basis. Some countries, in particular the carbon-intensive developed nations, would currently be well in excess of their apportioned amounts and would need to radically reduce their emissions, while less developed countries would be allowed to increase their emissions.



Private Members - Climate Change (Contraction & Convergence) - Bill

2

Q118 Mr Challen: You said in your January article that you were setting up a team to look at how the UK could mitigate its carbon emissions. I wonder if you could give us a progress report on that. In particular, whether you have had a chance to look at the cost to the UK of doing so, and whether indeed in its remit you might be asking it to look at the principle of contraction and convergence to see if that is a workable proposal?

Professor Sir David King: Can I take the second question first? Contraction and convergence has definite attractions, but there, again, we are talking on a global scale and we are talking about an alternative to the Kyoto process with carbon emission trading. Contraction and convergence is a permit system where you can exchange permits between countries. In essence it is a trading system but it does look at developing countries, so they can be brought on board by allowing them to build up their CO2 emissions while developed countries reduce, but they should peak at a certain level. I can see the attraction in the whole process, but I have to emphasise that the only game signed up to internationally is Kyoto, and until we have those absent from the signatories coming forward and saying "We would rather discuss contraction & convergence", I think we have to work within the Kyoto agreement. That is the process that we are set on.

Q119 Chairman: If Kyoto does not make progress because of the reluctance of some countries (and we know who they are and where they live) to participate, contraction and convergence must be a viable alternative.

Professor Sir David King:
I think it is a very interesting alternative, but as I say I think the key thing is that if those countries that are not satisfied that Kyoto is the way forward come to us at the negotiating table, I am happy for us to negotiate on that, and I believe our government is, as long as it is not seen to be a delaying tactic, because I think this is a matter of some urgency.

UK HoC Environmental Audit Committee 10th Report
Budget 2004 and Energy


Any framework which involves radical emission reductions would in practice resemble the Contraction and Convergence approach advocated by the Global Commons Institute. Indeed, in terms of domestic policy aims, the UK Government has already implicitly accepted this approach in adopting the 60% carbon reduction target for 2050; and it is therefore inconsistent not to adopt such an approach internationally. We do not see any credible alternative and none was suggested in evidence to our inquiry. We therefore recommend that the UK Government should formally adopt and promote Contraction and Convergence as the basis for future inter-national agreements to reduce emissions. We would urge the Government not to see its role during 2005 as being simply to broker international discussion. It should rather provide leadership by promoting specific objectives and targets. In that light we would make the following recommendations: (Paragraph 101) The UK Government should commit itself to Contraction and Convergence as the framework within which future inter-national agreements to tackle climate change are negotiated; and it should actively seek to engage support for this position during 2005 in advance of the next Conference of the Parties. Within the UNFCCC negotiating framework, the UK should press for a review of the adequacy of the commitments in the Convention, and focus its efforts on the need to agree more challenging absolute emission reduction targets within a post-2012 agreement.
The International Challenge of Climate Change
UK Leadership in the G8 & EU
[contains extensive evidence, both written and spoken, from GCI to EAC].
UK Hoc Environmental Audit Committee

A - C&C Evidence To House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee
B - C&C Evidence To House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee
C - C&C Evidence To House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee




The Performance & Innovation Unit - the Energy Review
Cabinet Office of the UK Prime Minister Tony Blair

3.69 A “leading” approach to climate change implies three separate policy timelines:

● measures to comply with agreed targets;
● measures to prepare for future targets not yet agreed but probably involving not all countries and operating for limited timeperiods; and
● measures to prepare for a world of long-term emission limits agreed between all countries, possibly based on the principles of contraction and convergence.

“Contraction and convergence” is a possible basis for long-term international agreement on carbon abatement. It would entail developed countries reducing their per capita emissions (contraction) whilst developing countries’ emissions expanded until all countries’ per capita emissions converged at a level considered to be sustainable

1

Chapter 4
of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution Report [RCEP 2000],
"Energy the Changing Climate" resulted in their 'Key Recommendation': -
"The government should press for a future global climate agreement based on the contraction and convergence approach, combined with international trading in emission permits. Together, these offer the best long-term prospect of securing equity, economy and international consensus."

1

GLOBE
C&C Briefing for Parliamentarians.
On Sunday the 17th of May 1998, the leaders of the developed world and Russia will sit down in Birmingham at the World Economic Summit to discuss climate change."Contraction and Convergence" is the only practical and convincing way forward for the world. It is vital that the G8 leaders recognize this and commit themselves to negotiating ahead of COP4 the global solution for what everyone accepts is the global problem. Such negotiation can only be based on the principle of equity and the establishment of the robust and flexible model contained in these pages.

The UK Climate Act is based on C&C
Tthere is a lot more support for C&C here

Caroline Lucas MP - Leader Green Party;
"C&C is Green Party Policy"

hh
UNFCCC-compliant Global Climate Change Framework

We all face an increasingly urgent situation with the threat of runaway rates of climate change occurring and the persistent failure to come to terms internationally to deal with this. COP-15 was another example of this and the odds for COP-16 appear no better as things stand.

So we write to you with the request to convene a high-level public meeting to focus on this predicament and the international need to establish a UNFCCC-compliant Global Climate Change Framework to redress this threat as soon as possible.

Contraction and Convergence is a prime example of this. It is a rational formulation for reconciliation of 'Climate Justice without Vengeance'. With the growing support for this approach internationally, we specifically note the positions taken in the UK context by: -

  • The RCEP in 2000 that, "The government should press for a future global climate agreement based on the contraction and convergence approach [C&C], combined with international trading in emission permits. Together, these offer the best long-term prospect of securing equity, economy and international consensus."
  • The UNFCCC Executive at COP-9 [2004] - achieving the objective of the UNFCCC "inevitably requires contraction and convergence".
  • The Liberal Democrat party that, "an agreement must be based on reducing emissions overall, while equalising emissions between the developed and developing worlds – the principle of contraction and convergence."
  • Yourself and what you called the "morally compelling logic" of C&C.
  • The All Party Parliamentary Group on Climate Change in the previous parliament.
  • The UK Climate Act, which Adair Turner effectively characterised as C&C in evidence to the EAC and DECC select committees last year saying that converging to equal per capita entitlements globally is the only option that is, "doable and fair" for organising and sharing the full-term emissions-contraction-event to bring us to UNFCCC-compliance and that "if, for reasons of urgency the rate of global contraction has to be accelerated, for reasons of equity the rate of international convergence has to be accelerated relative to that."
Several ideas derived from C&C have surfaced since Kyoto with ideas that can be perhaps in various ways incorporated into C&C. However, there is an overwhelming need for an over-arching UNFCCC-compliant Framework that enables the globally competing interests of the over-consuming and the under-consuming to be reconciled with each other and with the objective of the UNFCCC in a non-random manner.

We feel that C&C is the veteran and indeed the apex example of this and urge you to consider our request. At Kyoto in December 1997 and shortly before they withdrew from these negotiations, the USA stated, “C&C contains elements for the next agreement that we may ultimately all seek to engage in.”

The adversarial reasons for their withdrawal then were in play again at COP-15: - http://www.gci.org.uk/public/COP_15_C&C.swf

C&C answers this in a unifying and constitutional way and the need for this answer becomes increasingly critical.

With best wishes
Yours sincerely

Caroline Lucas [and 500 other eminent persons].

Green Party Manifesto

David Cameron Prime Minister;
"C&C intellectually & morally coherent."
Ed Miliband MP - Leader Labour Party;
"C&C - attractive Justice element."
12
Jon Gummer David Cameron Zac Goldsmith
"There is no shortage of plausible frameworks for a long term global deal on the table, not least the intellectually and morally coherent principle of Contraction and Convergence."
UK Conservatives Quality of Life Challenge
"Blueprint for a Green Economy" on C&C
Greg Barker DECC Minister;
"C&C a
Compelling Vision".

ee
"The C&C framework developed by Aubrey Meyer and the Global Commons Institute in many ways offers a compelling vision of a future long-term climate regime, and has a number of distinct benefits. These include: -

  • Recognition that per capita emissions of developed countries will need to come down significantly over time;
  • The establishment of a firm global pathway to limit emissions, with corresponding long term targets for all countries;
  • The development of an approach that many consider to represent a fair and equitable response to climate challenge."

Greg Barker, Minister of State at DECC to John Thurso MP, Colin Challen et al

Challen letter also here

Chris Huhne - DECC Minister;
"C&C - no other way to solve the problem."

ff
"You know I agree, in the long term there is no other way to solve this problem.”
Chris Huhne Lib Dem MP [2010]
UK Secretary of State Energy & Climate

See the Lib Dem Manifesto below

gg

"In the context of the international framework, the All Party Group group supports the morally compelling logic of Contraction and Convergence."
The Rt Honorable Chris Huhne MP speaking on C&C
Well before conference at the BMA Monday 17th October 2011

Vince Cable - Business Secretary;
"No progress without fundamental C&C agreement."

1
"Man-made climate change. Little progress can be made without fundamental agreement on the principle of 'Contraction and Convergence', as between high-income countries, which have generated the lion's share of the stock of carbon in the atmosphere, and the big low-income countries, which will contribute the greatest future emissions. Without China and India as full and equal partners in the process, it will fail."
Vince Cable Lib Dem MP [2009] - UK Secretary of State Business
The Storm: The World Economic Crisis & What It Means

See the Lib Dem Manifesto below

Nick Clegg - Deputy Prime Minister;
"C&C Central to our Climate strategy."

1
"I fully agree that the GCI's Contraction & Convergence framework provides a realistic & equitable plan for global action. That is why C&C was a key part of the Liberal Democrat's manifesto and why I continue to believe the principle of C&C will be central to our long-term strategy on climate change."
Nick Clegg Lib Dem MP [2010]
UK Deputy Prime Minister

See the Lib Dem Manifesto below

Adair Turner - Former Chairman Climate Change Committee
"The only sound strategy is C&C."

kk

Appropriate UK contributions to global emissions reductions

"The appropriate UK share of a global emissions target involves ethical judgements and will be the subject of international negotiations. A range of methodologies for allocating emissions reductions between countries have therefore been proposed. Most of these methodologies base emission reduction targets on per capita emissions, abatement costs or income. They differ in relation to the time when different countries begin emissions reductions, the rate at which they then reduce emissions, and the extent to which already industrialised countries should have to compensate for historic emission levels.

It is not part of the Committee’s remit to propose a specific methodology for the purposes on international negotiations. But we believe that it is difficult to imagine a global deal which allows the developed countries to have emissions per capita in 2050 which are significantly above a sustainable global average. In 2050 the global average, based on an estimated population of 9.2 billion, would be between 2.1 to 2.6 tonnes per capita, implying an 80% cut in UK Kyoto GHG emissions from 1990 levels."
Lord Adair Turner - Chairman UK Climate Change Committee
Letter re Creation of UK Climate Act to Minister of Energy and Climate Change
[07 10 2008] [UK Climate Act]

"Climate change is likely to impose massive economic costs. The case for being prepared to spend huge resources to limit it is clear,” says Turner, arguing that the cost will be repaid many times over by the avoidance of disaster. In any case, “the developed world does not have the moral right to increase the risk of flooding in Bangladesh”, and, he adds acidly, “European executives worried about the cost of action should perhaps consider it the necessary price for preserving at least some skiing in the Alps. Long term the only sound strategy is that of ‘contraction and convergence’ – cutting greenhouse emissions to the point where they are shared equally, worldwide, on a per capita basis.”
Lord Adair Turner - Chairman UK Climate Change Committee
Interview in Green Futures

Adair Turner characterised the UK Climate Act as C&C in evidence to the EAC and DECC select committees in 2009 saying that converging to equal per capita entitlements globally is the only option that is, "doable and fair" for organising and sharing the full-term emissions-contraction-event to bring us to UNFCCC-compliance. He agreed that, "if, for reasons of urgency the rate of global contraction has to be accelerated, for reasons of equity the rate of international convergence has to be accelerated relative to that.”
Evidence to House of Commons
Climate and Energy Committee

"Dear Mr Meyer, May I say that I have always had great admiration for the role you have played in proposing the broad principle that "convergence" of per capita emissions will in the long-term be reached."
Lord Adair Turner - Chairman UK Climate Change Committee
Personal Letter to GCI, 16th June 2009

Wider support for C&C here

C&C was also nominated for the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize
by Martin Caton, and six other Members of Parliament from the UK House of Commons

  1. Martin Caton’s fellow nominators were
  2. Colin Challen MP (Labour),
  3. Peter Ainsworth MP (Conservative),
  4. Chris Huhne MP (Liberal Democrat),
  5. Michael Meacher MP (Labour),
  6. Joan Walley MP (Labour) and
  7. Tim Yeo MP (Conservative).

Martin explained, “Aubrey Meyer may not yet be a household name, here in Britain, or indeed, in many other parts of the world. Yet his work is absolutely central to the global fight against climate change.” The Nobel Institute recognised how important the climate change challenge is to the future of our planet last year, when it awarded the prize jointly to Al Gore and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for raising awareness about this environmental threat. “We believe that it would, now, be right to recognise the man who has done most to provide an international solution to averting the disaster of global warming.”  Aubrey Meyer realised that we need a comprehensive climate change framework if we are to protect our planet. He founded the Global Commons Initiative in 1990 that developed just such a framework known as “contraction and convergence”.

This is the logical way forward. The human race reduces its carbon footprint towards zero at the same time as greenhouse gas emissions on a per capita basis in developed and developing nations converge. If his initiative was recognised now then it would send exactly the right message to world leaders as we consider what comes after the end of the Kyoto round in 2012.

jj
DfT, DTI and Defra) and, in terms of local level data for each of the three cities, local authorities ( e.g. Highland Council). The work also draws on scenario planning - [1] Tyndall Centre, [2] Foresight Futures, [3] Henley Centre/Environment Agency and [4] Contraction and Convergence. The strength of scenario planning lies in its ability to illustrate possible future 'paths', consider emerging (or possibly emergent) issues and so aid in the management of risks and opportunities The report draws upon 13 scenarios from four sources:

  1. The Tyndall Centre - four scenarios - these explicitly focus on the different ways in which a 60% reduction in CO2 emissions can be achieved by 2050. The four scenarios are based upon varying levels of economic growth and energy demand.
  2. Foresight Futures - four scenarios - although not specifically based on climate change, they contain scenarios that are consistent with CO2 reduction. They are based upon different sets of social values (either individual or community focused) and governance arrangements (either interdependent or autonomous).
  3. Henley Centre/Environment Agency - four scenarios - these are focused on 'environmental futures' in the round and are based upon different visions of consumption (dematerialised or material consumption) and UK governance systems (sustainability-led compared to growth-led).
  4. Contraction and Convergence - one scenario - while not strictly a scenario planning tool, this approach provides a valid and important input by virtue of its strong focus upon (social) distributional issues and equity.
The Scottish Government

3
taking a global lead on climate change
We will set a target for a zero-carbon Britain that doesn’t contribute at all to global warming – making the British economy carbon-neutral overall by 2050 with only 10 per cent offsets, and reducing carbon emissions in the UK by over 40 per cent of 1990 levels with no offsets by 2020 as a step on the way. Liberal Democrats are committed to securing a legally binding global agreement on limiting the increase in global temperatures to below 1.7 degrees Celsius. We believe that such an agreement must be based on the principles of contraction and convergence (reducing emissions overall, while equalising emissions between the developed and developing worlds).

Liberal Democrat Manifesto

ii
Contraction and convergence is the only truly equitable model for international action, under which the world moves to a position where every person is entitled to the same emissions as everyone else. This is a fair and equitable model when high per capita emitters agree to act fast to come down to the level of others. Garnaut, however, has used it, based on Australia’s high population growth projections, to argue that Australia should move slowly to reduce our per capita emissions.
Green Senator Christine Milne Australia
With PM Julia Gillard [Microphone] & others

1
Key Principles
The Green Party believes that:
1. Climate change policy should be guided by the science with the
interests of the global community and environment ahead of the goal of economic growth
2. We must think long term and start early because of the lag time in climate effects.
3. We need to act quickly if we are to successfully limit global warming to
2 degrees C and prevent runaway climate change.
4. Total global emissions must be reduced quickly and converge to emission quotas that are based on equal per capita entitlements - a process known as contraction and convergence.
5. In order to achieve the necessary permanent reductions in greenhouse emissions all countries must be part of a binding international agreement that sets regular targets for emissions and monitors compliance with them.
6. Those countries with the highest per capita emissions must do the most to reduce their emissions.
7. Those sectors with the ability to reduce their emissions or to switch to non-emitting activities must do so as quickly as possible.
8. All sectors of the economy should cover the overall cost to the taxpayer of their emissions and do this in a fair and equitable manner, with no free riders.

New Zealand Green Party

2
C.3 Contraction and Convergence
CC220 The Kyoto Protocol says nothing about the future beyond 2012. To address that timescale the Green Party advocates the adoption by the UNFCCC of a frame-work of Contraction and Convergence (C&C) as the key ingredient in the global political solution to the problem of Climate Change mitigation, and urges the UK and other governments use it as the basis for negotiations in the international fora.
CC2214 C&C is a scheme to provide for a smooth and equitable transition to a safe level of global CO2 emissions from human activity. It can be adapted either to follow-on from a successful Kyoto Protocol, or can equally be used in case the KP is not brought into force by enough countries ratifying it. C&C is not an alternative to the KP; it is a long-term framework for global cooperation towards a genuine solution; while the KP is a short- term fix that takes only very limited steps forward. A GP policy statement describes C&C in more detail.
CC222 'Contraction', means adopting a scientifically determined safe target concentration level and setting global annual emissions levels which should take the atmosphere to that target. The UNFCCC should agree specific thresholds for unacceptable climate impacts, from which the IPCC should calculate the appropriate concentration level, to be reviewed at 5-yearly intervals.
CC223 'Convergence' means taking the world in an achievable way, both technically and politically, from the present situation to a common level of per-capita emissions in a target year. Under it nations are allocated annual quotas for emissions, which start from current or Kyoto-based levels in year 1 of the agreement and converge to equal per-capita allocations after a negotiated interval, probably of a few decades.
CC224 The C&C package is completed with an emissions-trading mechanism, which should include a percentage cap to limit the proportion of a country's reductions that can be bought rather than achieved domestically. Monitoring and enforcement mechanisms are also required and should be set up by the UNFCCC.
C.4 EU Emmisions trading Scheme
CC230 The current EU emissions trading scheme has two primary flaws; it not based on equal rights to the atmosphere, nor on global greenhouse-gas stabilisation targets. As a result the highest polluters are rewarded with the greatest allocation of emission permits, full carbon life-cycle emissions are not assessed and no attempt is made to correlate with global stabilisation targets. It needs complete restructuring in line with Contraction and Convergence principles.
UK Green Party Manifesto

4
“I urge the UK Government to provide leadership on climate change by committing itself to Contraction and Convergence as the framework within which future international agreements to tackle climate change are negotiated. I confirm that the party also supports this pledge.”
Simon Thomas
Policy Director Plaid Cymru

5
“Conference recognises the urgent need for action to mitigate climate change given the potentially disastrous consequences for the planet. We pledge to achieve a low carbon emitting society and commit the SNP to supporting the adoption of the internationally-recognised principle of “Contraction and Convergence”.”
Alex Salmond
S
cottish National Party

 

Multi-signature Letter to
Chris Huhne Minister at the Department of Energy and Climate Change
here and below . . . 

Dear Chris

UNFCCC-compliant Global Climate Change Framework

We all face an increasingly urgent situation with the threat of runaway rates of climate change occurring and the persistent failure to come to terms internationally to deal with this. COP-15 was another example of this and the odds for COP-16 appear no better as things stand.

So we write to you with the request to convene a high-level public meeting to focus on this predicament and the international need to establish a UNFCCC-compliant Global Climate Change Framework to redress this threat as soon as possible.

Contraction and Convergence is a prime example of this. It is a rational formulation for reconciliation of 'Climate Justice without Vengeance'. With the growing support for this approach internationally, we specifically note the positions taken in the UK context by: - 

  • The RCEP in 2000 that, "The government should press for a future global climate agreement based on the contraction and convergence approach [C&C], combined with international trading in emission permits. Together, these offer the best long-term prospect of securing equity, economy and international consensus."
  • The UNFCCC Executive at COP-9 [2004] - achieving the objective of the UNFCCC "inevitably requires contraction and convergence".
  • The Liberal Democrat party that, "an agreement must be based on reducing emissions overall, while equalising emissions between the developed and developing worlds – the principle of contraction and convergence."
  • Yourself and what you called the "morally compelling logic" of C&C.
  • The All Party Parliamentary Group on Climate Change in the previous parliament.
  • The UK Climate Act, which Adair Turner effectively characterised as C&C in evidence to the EAC and DECC select committees last year saying that converging to equal per capita entitlements globally is the only option that is, "doable and fair" for organising and sharing the full-term emissions-contraction-event to bring us to UNFCCC-compliance and that "if, for reasons of urgency the rate of global contraction has to be accelerated, for reasons of equity the rate of international convergence has to be accelerated relative to that." 
Several ideas derived from C&C have surfaced since Kyoto with ideas that can be perhaps in various ways incorporated into C&C. However, there is an overwhelming need for an over-arching UNFCCC-compliant Framework that enables the globally competing interests of the over-consuming and the under-consuming to be reconciled with each other and with the objective of the UNFCCC in a non-random manner.

We feel that C&C is the veteran and indeed the apex example of this and urge you to consider our request. At Kyoto in December 1997 and shortly before they withdrew from these negotiations, the USA stated, “C&C contains elements for the next agreement that we may ultimately all seek to engage in.”

The adversarial reasons for their withdrawal then were in play again at COP-15: - http://www.gci.org.uk/public/COP_15_C&C.swf    

C&C answers this in a unifying and constitutional way and the need for this answer becomes increasingly critical.

With best wishes
Yours sincerely

  1. Colin Challen
    Former Chair UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Climate Change
  2. Professor Sir Tom Blundell FRS, FMedSci,
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge,
    Former Chairman of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution
  3. Professor Peter Guthrie OBE
    Professor in Engineering for Sustainable Development in the UK
    Fellow of St Edmund's College Cambridge
  4. Professor Martin Rees
    Trinity College Cambridge
    Sir John Houghton
    President, John Ray Initiative
  5. Michael Hutchinson
    CEO Tangent Films
  6. The Rt Revd & Rt Hon Richard Chartres KCVO DD FSA
    Bishop of London
  7. Anthony J. McMichael, MBBS, PhD
    Professor and NHMRC Australia Fellow National Centre for Epidemiology & Population Health
    ANU College of Medicine, Biology and Environment
    Australian National University
    Honorary Professor of Climate Change and Human Health, University of Copenhagen
  8. Ruth Reed
    President Royal Institute of British Architects [RIBA]
  9. Sunand Prasad
    Former President of RIBA
  10. Maneka Gandhi
    Member of Parliament India
  11. David Wiggins
    Wykeham Professor of Logic, Emeritus, Oxford University
  12. Lord David Puttnam
    Film Producer
  13. Jack Pringle
    PPRIBA Hon AIA FRSA Dip Arch BA(hons)
    Partner Pringle Brandon LLP; Director WIRED architects Ltd
    Chair Article [25] (UK reg. charity 1112621 for Development and Disaster Relief)
    Vice Chair Construction Industry Council (CIC)
    Council Member International Union of Architects (UIA)
    Past President Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)
    Commandeur Des Arts et Lettres
  14. Sir John Harman FRSA Hon FICE, FIWEM, FIWM, FSE, DCL
  15. Professor Aubrey Manning, OBE,FRSE
    Emeritus Professor of Natural History, University of Edinburgh
  16. Tim Livesey
    The Archbishop of Canterbury's Secretary for Public Affairs
  17. Sir Crispin Tickell
    Director Policy Foresight Programme Oxford University
  18. Professor Sir Michael Marmot MBBS, MPH, PhD, FRCP, FFPHM,FMedSci
    Director, UCL International Institute for Society and Health
    MRC Research Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London
    Chairman, Commission on Social Determinants of Health
    Chairman, Department of Health Scientific Reference Group
  19. Professor Sir Andy Haines
    Director, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
    [in a personal capacity]
    Professor Brendan Mackey
    The Fenner School of Environment & Society
    The Australian National University
    * Member, IUCN Council (Oceania Regional Councilor)
    * Member, Earth Charter International Council
  20. Professor David Orr
    Environmental Studies and Politics Oberlin College and James Marsh Professor at the University of Vermont.
  21. Alistair Woodward
    Head of the School of Population Health, University of Auckland
  22. Dr Nigel Woodcock
    Reader, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge
  23. Roger Arthur Graef OBE
    criminologist and film-maker
  24. Professor Bill McGuire
    Director, Aon Benfield UCL Hazard Research Centre
    University College London
  25. Lord Anthony Giddens
    Professor Emeritus LSE
  26. Susan Richards
    non-executive director and founder of openDemocracy
  27. John Carstensen
    Chief Executive Officer Society for the Environment
  28. Professor Mark Swilling
    Sustainability Institute, School of Public Management and Planning
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa
  29. Lynne Jackson
    Coastal & Environmental Consulting
    Cape Town, South Africa
  30. Dr David Pencheon
    Director - NHS Sustainable Development Unit (SDU)
  31. Professor Anthony Costello FMedSci,
    Director UCL Institute for Global Health
  32. Tom Spencer
    Vice Chairman, Institute for Environmental Security
  33. Dr Mayer Hillman
    Senior Fellow Emeritus Politcy Studies Institute
  34. Susan George
    President of the board of the Transnational Institute
  35. Alex Kirby
    Former BBC News environment correspondent
  36. Professor Tim Jackson
    Sustainable Development Surrey University
    Director of the Research group on Lifestyles, Values and Environment
  37. Professor William E. Rees, PhD, FRSC
    UBC School of Community and Regional Planning, Vancouver, BC, CANADA
  38. Jeremy Leggett
    Chairman Solar Century
  39. Andrew Dlugolecki
    UK Climate Change Committee Member, Sub Committee on Adaptation
  40. The Hon. Tom Roper
    Board Member, Climate Institute, Washington DC
  41. Adam Poole
    The EDGE UK
  42. Professor Lord Smith of Clifton
  43. Peter Head,
    Chairman of Global Planning Arup.
  44. Linda Rosenstock MD, MPH
    Dean, UCLA School of Public Health
    Former Director, U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  45. Professor Alan Maryon-Davis
    President, UK Faculty of Public Health
    John Guillebaud
    Emeritus Professor of Family Planning & Reproductive Health, UCL
  46. Professor Hugh Montgomery
    Director, UCL Institute for Human Health and Performance
  47. Dr Robin Stott
    Director of the Climate and Health Council
  48. Emeritus Professor Brian Moss
    University of Liverpool
  49. Steven Earl Salmony
    AWAREness Campaign on The Human Population [estab. 2001]
  50. Robert Costanza
    Gordon and Lulie Gund Professor of Ecological Economics
    Director, Gund Institute for Ecological Economics
    Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources
    The University of Vermont
  51. Jenny Griffiths OBE,
    Member, Climate and Health Council
  52. Tim Helweg Larsen
    Director Public Interest Research Centre
  53. Jonathon Porritt
    Forum for the Future
  54. Sara Parkin,
    Founder Director, Forum for the Future
  55. Lorna Walker
    CABE
  56. Dave Hampton
    Carbon Coach MA (Cantab) C Env C Eng FCIOB,
    Society for the Environment Board Member, The Edge,
    RIBA Sustainable Futures, Superhomer, Transition Town Marlow Founder
  57. Leslie Watson
    Director Sustainability South West
    Nick Reeves
  58. Executive Director CIWEM
  59. Professor Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker PhD
    Lead Author, Factor Five, Former Chairman of the German Bundestag's Environment Committee
  60. Professor Robert B. Whitmarsh
    School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, SOUTHAMPTON
  61. Patrick Ainley
    Professor of Training and Education, University of Greenwich
  62. Michael H. Glantz,
    Director CCB (Consortium for Capacity Building)
    INSTAAR University of Colorado
  63. Antonio Sarmiento G
    Instituto de Matemáticas, UNAM México
  64. Tim Smit
    Director of the EDEN Project
  65. Ulrich Loening
    Former Director of the Centre for Human Ecology
  66. Paul Allen
    External Relations Director of the Centre for Alternative Technology
  67. Dr Richard Horton
    Editor in Chief Lancet Magazine
  68. Fiona Godlee
    Editor in Chief British Medical Journal
  69. Dr Jean-Baptiste Kakoma
    Rwandan School of Public Health
    Ian Roberts
  70. Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health LSHTM
    University of London
  71. Sarah Walpole, BSc, MBChB,
    York District Hospital, UK
  72. Professor Sir Sabaratnam Arulkumaran
    President, Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, UK
  73. Mr Tim Campbell-Smith MBBS BSC FRCS (Gen Surg)
    Consultant colorectal and general surgeon
  74. Mark Thompson
    General Practitioner
  75. Dr. Marie-Claire Lobo
    Consultant in Public Health Medicine NHS Hampshire
  76. Tony Waterston
    Consultant paediatrician (retired)
    Chair of Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Advocacy committee
  77. Robert Johnstone MSc MInstP MIPEM CEng
    Clinical Scientist, London
  78. Professor David Webb
    Engineering The Praxis Centre Leeds Metropolitan University
  79. Dr Stuart Parkinson
    Scientists for Global Responsibility
  80. Professor Fiona Stanley
    Director Telethon Institute for Child Health Research Perth Western Australia
  81. Bhavani Prakash
    Founder Eco WALK the Talk.com, www.ecowalkthetalk.com/blog
  82. Professor Andrew Weaver
    Canada Research Chair University of Victoria
  83. Dr Tom Barker
    Sustainability ecologist, Dept of Ecology, University of Liverpool.
  84. Sean Kidney
    Chair, Climate Bonds Initiative
  85. Dr Samuel Bonnett
    Biogeochemist, Institute for Sustainable Water,
    Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research,
    University of Liverpool.
  86. Dr Peter North,
    Senior lecturer, Department of Geography,
    University of Liverpool.
  87. Dr Jane Fisher,
    Lecturer in Ecology,
    Liverpool John Moores University.
  88. Prof Andy Plater,
    Director of Oceans and Ecosystems Research Cluster and
    Head of Green Economy incubation Network,
    University of Liverpool
  89. Romayne Phoenix
    London Green Party  Campaigns Officer
  90. Penny Kemp - GCI
  91. Jim Berreen – GCI
  92. Dr Richard Lawson
    General Practitioner
  93. Mr Mike Zeidler
    Chairman, Association of Sustainability Practitioners
  94. John Bunzl
    Trustee, International Simultaneous Policy Organisation
  95. Roger Martin
    Chair, Optimum Population Trust
  96. Anthony and Anne Wilson
    Staffordshire
  97. Marianne McKiggan
    Crisis Forum
  98. David Cook
    Executive Ambassador the Natural Step

  99. Ian Roderick,
    Director of the Schumacher Centre,
    lead partner in the CONVERGE project
  100. Michael Herrmann
    Senior Lecturer in Sustainability
    Kingston University School of Architecture & Landscape
    Faculty of Art, Design & Architecture Surrey
  101. Professor Peter Reason
    School of Management, University of Bath
  102. John H Crook Phd DSc
    Formerly Head of Joint School in Psychology and Zoology
    Psychology Department, Bristol University
  103. Francesca Vandelli
    Systemic Learning and Development Officer, Health and Social Care Bristol
  104. Tim Malnick
    Co-Director Ashridge Masters in Sustainability and Responsibility
  105. Toddington Harper
    MD, The Low Carbon Economy Ltd
  106. Dr Nicholas Allott
    Postdoctoral research fellow at Centre
    for the Study of Mind and Nature, Oslo University
  107. Doug Whitehead
    Partner Consulting & Student Bond University
    Post Graduate Programme Carbon Management
    EnSight Consultancy, Brisbane
  108. Hilary Griffiths
    Coordinator of Friends of the Earth, Guildford and Waverley.
  109. Elizabeth Tomlinson
    BSc (Econ), ITEC, LLSA, MBNSRTA
  110. Dr Keith Baker
    Director, Sustainable Footprints
  111. Keith Taylor
    Green MEP
  112. Jean Lambert
    Green MEP
  113. Caroline Lucas MP
  114. Tim Yeo MP
    Chairman of the House of Commons Energy and Climate Change Committee
  115. Martin Caton MP
  116. Joan Walley MP
  117. Paul Flynn MP
  118. Jo Swinson MP
  119. Rt Hon Michael Meacher MP
    UK House of Commons
  120. Dr. Rupert Read
    Norwich Green Party and University of East Anglia Philosophy Department
  121. Jenny Jones AM
    Green Party Group London Assembly
  122. Darren Johnson AM
    Green Party Member London Assembly
  123. Dr Martin Hemingway
    Green Party, North West Leeds
  124. James Del-Gatto
    Head of CSR - SThree plc
  125. Raja Mitra
    Senior executive & Management professional
  126. Stuart Jeffery
    Campaigns Officer, Kent Green Party
  127. Andrew Dakers
    Spokesperson for Hounslow Borough Liberal Democrats
  128. Meenakshi Subramaniam
    UCCK, Kodaikanal
  129. Paul Anderson, PhD
    Research Fellow, University of Warwick
  130. John Russell
    Chairman Giltbrook Studios, Nottingham
  131. Esther Maughan McLachlan,
    Managing Director, Strong Language Ltd.
  132. Stephen Thomson,
    Editor, Plomomedia.com
  133. Peter Martin
    Research Director CarbonSense
  134. Dave Yates
    Newport Friends of the Earth
  135. Dr Michael Taylor
    Retired Teacher
  136. Terry Wyatt
  137. Jo Abbess
    BSc
  138. Miles Litvinoff
    writer
  139. John Cossham
  140. Milena Buchs
  141. Stan Mowatt
    Chemistry Teacher
  142. Audrey Urry
    Liberal Democrat
  143. Chris Keene
    Green Party
  144. Dr Clive R Sneddon
    Liberal Democrat
  145. John Dougill
    Artist
  146. Tony Burton
    Wind Energy Consultant
  147. Tamas Szabados
    PhD Maths Dept Budapest University
  148. Rebecca Findlay
    Lambeth Green Party & Sustainable Streatham
  149. Brian Orr
    Civil Servant
  150. Penney Poyzer
    Author and Broadcaster
  151. Jeffrey Newman
    Earth Charter
  152. Kate Prendergast
    Freelance consultant, member Crisis Forum
  153. Mr Leo Giordano
    Homes and Communities Agency
  154. Rev. Canon Peter Challen
    Christian Council for Monetary Justice
  155. Alex Lawrie
    CEO, Lightweight Community Transport
    Chair, The Ecological Land Co-operative
  156. John Whiting
    GCT
  157. Sabine McNeill
    Green Credit
  158. Dr Alan Bullion
    Business Analyst, Informa Agra
  159. Dr. Robert Davis
  160. Steve Wright
    Reader Global Ethics, Leeds Metropolitan University
  161. Dr Arvind Sivaramakrishnan
  162. Michael Sackin
  163. Phil Harris
    retired Government Grade 7 scientist
  164. Barbara Panvel
    Centre for Holistic Studies [India]
  165. Dr Mark Levene
    Reader in Comparative History, University of Southampton
  166. Jonathan Ward
    MSci, MSocSc, StudentForce for Sustainability
  167. Richard Jordan MA
  168. Nic Lee and Heather Finlay
    London
  169. Jim Roland
    Liberal Democrat party member
  170. Ashton Shuttleworth
    BSc (Dunelm) MSc DipIC DipFM FRGS - Environmental Finance and Consulting
  171. Ben Brangwyn
    co-founder Transition Network
  172. Michelle Thomasson
    Transition Minchinhampton
  173. Anne Adams
  174. Peter Kent Bsc. Msc
    Lib Dem. Town Councillor
  175. Clare Palgrave
    Chair; Woking Local Action 21
  176. Scott Ainslie
  177. Susan Chapman
    BA (Theol) Retired Teacher
  178. Georgia Meyer
    Teacher
  179. Lucinda Cridland
  180. Sophie Rees
  181. Zahra Akram
  182. Laura Mccutcheon
  183. Rhiannon Dorrington
  184. Pippa Bartolotti
  185. Carolyn Kelley Gopalan
  186. Prakash Natarajan
    IT Director
  187. Brian Wills
  188. Philip Valentino
    The Food and More Project
  189. Owen Clarke
    Green Party Torfaen
  190. Ms Mary Scott
    Environmental consultant
  191. Angie Zelter
    Reforest the Earth
  192. Nina Venkataraman
  193. Liam Proven
    Writer - London
  194. Hugh Fraser
    Transition Kensington
  195. Jean Vidler
    Green Futures Festivals Co Ltd
  196. Ankaret Harmer
    Kings Heath Transition Initiative & BrumLETS, Birmingham
  197. Dr Martin Hemingway
    Green Party, North West Leeds
  198. Jamie Bull MSc
    oCo Carbon
  199. Sheila Freeman 
    Friends of the Earth London
  200. Reggie Norton MA
  201. Christine Dawson
    Artist
  202. Nicola Wareing
    Physics Student, Lancaster University
  203. Chris Speyer
    Writer
  204. Diana Korchien
    Publisher of Calendar of Climate Change (2007, 2008, 2009)
    Transition Leytonstone
  205. Ros Bedlow
    Transition Leytonstone
  206. Roisin Robertson MICHT VTCT
  207. Janice Connully
    Womens Theatre
  208. Julie Baker
    Community Artist
  209. Al Dutton
  210. Alan Francis
    Green Party Transport Speaker
  211. Brig Oubridge
    Former Director, Big Green Gathering
  212. John Moore
    Green Radio
  213. Simon Eastwood
  214. Linda Benfield
    Director Big Green Gathering
  215. Helena Schnitner
    Big Green Gathering Independent Astrologer
  216. Alan Turnbull
    Director Floating Lotus
  217. Ossie Bash-Taqi
    Chef
  218. Hugo Charlton
    Barrister
  219. Eileen Noakes

Separately various people have written and campaigned quite extensively around C&C

  1. Sir John Houghton - Chairman of the John Ray Initiative, Former Chair IPCC WG1
  2. Colin Challen - Former Chair All Party Parliamentary Group on Climate Change UK House of Commons
  3. Joan Walley MP - Chairman UK HoC Environmental Audit Committee
  4. Tim Yeo MP - Chairman UK HoC Energy Climate Change Committee
  5. Dr Caroline Lucas MP - Leader of the UK Green Party
  6. Martin Caton MP - UK Labour Party
  7. The Right Honourable Dr Vince Cable MP - Business Secretary
  8. Dr Kennedy Graham MP - Global Affairs Spokesman Green Party New Zealand
  9. Senator Christine Milne - Leader of the Australian Greens
  10. Rabbi Jeffrey Newman - Movement for Reform Judaism
  11. Chris Mottershead - Vice Principal Kings College London
  12. Professor Tony McMichael - Australia National University
  13. Associate Professor Colin Butler - Australia National University
  14. Professor Sharon Friel - Australia National University
  15. Dr Mayer Hillman - Senior Fellow Emeritus, Policy Studies Institute [PSI]
  16. Professor Martin Manning - Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
  17. Dr Andrew Dlugolecki - Former Director Aviva Insurance
  18. Professor David Crichton - Chartered Insurance Practitioner
  19. Julian Salt - Climate Solutions
  20. Daniel Klingenveld - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
  21. Professor Sir Tom Blundell - Cambridge University Biochemistry
  22. Professor Don Brown - Rock Ethics Institute Penn State University
  23. Professor William Rees - UBC School of Community and Regional Planning, Vancouver, BC, CANADA
  24. Professor Herman Daly - Emeritus Professor University of Maryland
  25. Professor Paul Harris - Hong Kong Insitute of Education
  26. Professor Tim Jackson - University of Surrey
  27. Professor Juliet Schor - Boston College USA
  28. Robert Goodland - Former Chief Ecologist at the World Bank
  29. Professor Lord Anthony Giddens - Fellow American Academy of Science Chinese Academy of Social Science
  30. Romayne Phoenix - Candidate for next UK Green Party Leader
  31. Jo Abbess - Energy Change for Climate Control
  32. Meena Subramanian - Villa Prakriti Kerala South India
  33. Jelle Hielkema - Ex FAO - Rainbow Web Site
  34. Rupert Read - D Phil Oxford Green Party, MEP Candidate European Parliament Elections 2014
  35. Jonathan Maxson - MSW USA
  36. Professor Peter Guthrie OBE - Engineering for Sustainable Development Cambridge
  37. Hyungsup Lee - Australia National University
  38. Prue Taylor - Deputy Director New Zealand Centre for Environmental Law University of Auckland NZ
  39. Professor John Cobb - Claremont Graduate School
  40. Professor Helmut Burkhardt - Emeritus Professoir Physics Ryerson University Toronto Canada
  41. Professor John Twidell - Director AMSET
  42. Professor Konrad Ott - Griefswald University
  43. Dr Robin Stott - CEO Climate and Health Council
  44. Dr Mohammed Behnassi - Associate Professor IBN ZOHR UNIVERSITY
  45. Professor Ian Lowe - Griffiths University Australia
  46. Professor Robin Attfield - Cardiff University Philosophy Department
  47. Professor David Huddart- Liverpool John Moores University
  48. Professor Tamas Szabados - Budapest University of Technology and Economics
  49. Professor Ryoichi Yamamoto - University of Tokyo
  50. Professor Bill Adams - University of Cambridge
  51. Professor Roberto De Vogli - Michigan University
  52. Professor Bill McGuire - Geophysical & Climate Hazards, Dept of Earth Sciences UCL
  53. Professor John Guillebaud - Family Planning and Reproductive Health, UCL
  54. Professor Andrew Weaver - University of Victoria
  55. Professor Dennis O'Hara - University of Totonto
  56. Professor Judith Stephenson - University College London
  57. Catherine Budgett-Meakin - Environmental Camapigner
  58. Karen Newman - Co-ordinator Population Sustainability Network
  59. Roger Martin - Chair Optimum Population Trust
  60. Professor Ulrich von Weizsacker - Co-Chair, International Resource Panel (UNEP)
  61. Professor Edward Page - Warwick University
  62. Professor Peter Newell - Sussex University
  63. Jenny Griffiths OBE - Independent health consultant; Moderator, UKPHR
  64. Professor Anthony Costello - International Child Health & Director UCL Institute for Global Health
  65. Professor Philip Hanlon - University of Glasgow
  66. Professor Sandra Carlisle - University of Glasgow
  67. Professor Kate Pickett - University of York
  68. Professor Sir Andy Haines - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine [for ID & affiliation only]
  69. Professor Colin Soskolne - University of Alberta
  70. Professor Brian Moss - University of Liverpool
  71. Professor Bob Whitmarsh - University of Southampton
  72. Professor Tim O'Riordan - University of East Anglia
  73. Professor Michael Mainelli - Gresham College London
  74. Professor David Coley - Bath University
  75. Professor Gary Yohe - Wesleyan University
  76. Professor Sigurd Bergmann - Norwegian University of Science
  77. Professor Walter Sinnott Armstrong - Philosophy, Kenan Institute for Ethics Duke University
  78. Professor Bob White - Earth Sciences Department Cambridge
  79. Professor James Connelly - Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Hull
  80. Professor Celia Deane Drummond - University of Notre Dame
  81. Professor Julian Agyeman - Tufts University
  82. Professor Brendan Mackey - Griffiths University
  83. Professor Emerita Laura Westra - University of Windsor
  84. Professor Paul Jowitt - Heriot Watt University Former President of ICE
  85. Professor Sue Roaf - Heriot Watt University
  86. Professor Amy Sinden - Temple Universith, Beasley Law School
  87. Professor Markus Vogt - University of Munich
  88. Associate Professor Ton Buhrs - Lincoln University
  89. Professor John Quiggin - University of Queensland
  90. Professor Colin Price - Bangor University
  91. Professor Thomas Potthast - Tubingen University
  92. Associate Professor Anitra Nelson - RMIT University Melbourne
  93. Frans Timmerman - Editor and Author
  94. Derek Deighton - Managing Director Trailblazers
  95. Dr Mary Pettenger - Associate Professor Western Oregon University
  96. Dr Carl Knight - University of Glasgow
  97. Dr Rohinton Emmanuel - Glasgow Caledonian University
  98. Dr Keith Baker - Glasgow Caledonian University
  99. Dr Sarah Cornell - Stockholm Resilience Centre
  100. Dr David Pencheon - Director National Health Service Sustainable Development Unit
  101. Dr Brenda Boardman - Oxford University Environmental Change Institute
  102. Dr Javier de Cendra - Director Research Ethics, University College London
  103. Dr Nick Bardsley - Lecturer in Climate Change Economics, University of Reading
  104. Dr John Blewitt - Aston University Birmingham
  105. Dr Peter Davies - Chairman Welsh Climate Change Commission
  106. Dr Richard Taylor - Geography University College London
  107. Dr Robin Hickman - Bartlett University College London
  108. Dr Geoff O'Brien - Northumbria University
  109. Dr Rob Hopkins - Inspiration and Initiator of the 'Transition Movement'
  110. Dr John Barry - Queens UNiversity Belfast
  111. Dr Matthew Paterson - University of Ottawa
  112. Dr Rupert Read - University of East Anglia
  113. David Hirst - Inventor, Entreprenewur, Consultant
  114. Leo Murray - Wake Up, Freak Out, Get a Grip
  115. Tim Wendler - President Arroyas and Foothills Conservancy California USA
  116. Chris Rose - Director Campaign Strategy
  117. Ed Gillespie - CoFounder FUTERRA Sustainability
  118. Judith Deutsch - President Science for Peace Toronto Canada
  119. Felix Dodds - Executive Director Stakeholder Forum
  120. Mark Hennesy and Carol Cumes - Willka T'ika & Magical Journey
  121. Dame Julia Morton-Marr - Founding President International Holistic Tourism Education Centre [IHTEC]
  122. Jeremy Leggett - Chairman Solar Century
  123. Raj Thamotheram - President Network for Sustainable Financial Markets
  124. Rosalie Callway - Independent Advisor to Involve and Two Degree Network
  125. Steven McCulloch - Veterinarian and Ethicist
  126. Shakeel Mahmood - Bangladesh Poribesh-Dhuson Andolon
  127. Medea Benjamin - Co Director Code Pink
  128. Alan Marshall - Climate Change Answers Tasmania
  129. Peter Merry - Co-Director of the Hague Center for Global Governance
  130. Dr Tom Barker - Liverpool University
  131. Anne_Marie Voorhoeve - Co-Director of the Hague Center for Global Governance
  132. Lawrence Bloom - Chairman, Pathway Geneva
  133. Chiara von Gunten - Programme Manager, the London Accord
  134. Daniel Kenning - Splendid Engineering
  135. Sunand Prasad - Former President of RIBA
  136. Jack Pringle - Former President of RIBA
  137. Ashok Khosla - Chair IUCN
  138. Larry Cobb - Executive Director Ethics Works
  139. John Foster - Lancaster University
  140. Barry Bolton - Chairman ACM
  141. Elizabeth Malone - Pacific North West National Laboratory
  142. Melanie Strickland - solicitor and Occupy London supporter
  143. Dr Wil Burns - Assoc Dir EPCP John Hopkins University
  144. Dave Hampton - Carbon Coach
  145. Adam Poole - The EDGE
  146. Jo Dirix - Free University Brussels
  147. Dr Nigel Clark - Senior Lecturer Open University
  148. Dr Keith Hyams - Exeter University
  149. Dr Anne Ryan - FEASTA trustee
  150. Jane M.Wernick - FREng Hon.FRIBA FIStructE FICE
  151. Mark Whitby - BEng, FICE, Hon FRIBA, FREng
  152. Robin Nicholson - CBE
  153. Andrew Kluth - Engineering Sustainability
  154. Chris Twinn - Arup Fellow; Director; Senior Sustainability Consultant
  155. Bill Gething - Sustainability Architecture
  156. Bill Bordass - William Bordass Associates
  157. Harley Wright - Climate Sense - Sydney Australia
  158. Paul Bodenham - Christian Ecology Link
  159. John Vidal - Environment Editor the Guardian
  160. Alex Kirby - consultant to the UN Secretary-General's High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability
  161. Ian Roderick - CEO The Converge Project
  162. David Oakley-Hill - Luton Assembly Environment & Economy Committee
  163. Laurie Barlow - Civitas
  164. Mike Sandler - Co-founder, Climate Protection Campaign, USA
  165. Mark Levene - Southampton University 
  166. Jane Roberts - Open University Bristol
  167. Sarah Walpole - Climate and Health Council
  168. Lynn Sloman - Director Transport for Quality of Life
  169. Ian Christie - University of Surrey
  170. Paul Read - Monash Sustainability Institute
  171. Helen Chadwick - Sustainability Consultant , Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society (FRMetS)
  172. Bhavani Prakash - Eco Walk the Talk & Green Collar Asia
  173. Andrew Simmonds - CEO AECB the sustainable building association
  174. Victoria Hurth -
  175. Diana Korchien -
  176. Tim Smit - CEO The EDEN Project
  177. Peter Challen - Christian Council of Monetary Justice
  178. Jo Moulds -
  179. Ulrich Loening - Fmr Chair Centre for Human Ecology
  180. John Riley - Holyrood 350
  181. Tessa Tennant - 
  182. James Garvey - Talking Philosophy Blog
  183. John Murray - Project Manager - delivery ENERGY SAVINGS TRUST
  184. Alan Shingler - Partner & Head of Sustainability, Shephard Robson
  185. Peter Roberts -
  186. Michael Herrmann - Kingston University London
  187. Craig Embleton - Eco Affluence
  188. David Strahan - Last Oil Shock
  189. Jeremy Railton - Entdesign - California
  190. Henning Drager - BDO Ukraine
  191. Dave Yates
  192. Sean Kidney - CEO Climate Bonds Initiative
  193. Penny Kemp - UK Green Party
  194. Geoff Thompson - CEO Youth Charter
  195. Richard Dennis
  196. Dr Jo House - Climate & Envrionmental Change Group, University of Bristol
  197. Jan-Peter Onstwedder - Managing Director Risk Citi 
  198. Matthew Paterson - Ecole d'Etudes politiques, Universite d'Ottawa
  199. Richard Lawson - Green Party South West England
  200. John Veitch - New Zealand
  201. Tom Roper - Chair of the Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council 
  202. Dan Rigamonti - 
  203. Dr Paul Anderson - Legal Consultant, Political Analyst, Social Theorist
  204. David Cromwell - Media Lens
  205. Marie Loh - Concerned Mum and Creative Activist
  206. Clive Sneddon - Former Lib Dem Councillor
  207. Ashwani Vasishth - Center for Sustainability, Ramapo College of New Jersey, USA
  208. Mary Otto-Chang -
  209. Georgia Meyer - Freelance
  210. Hazel Henderson - D.Sc.Hon., FRSA, author, futurist, president - Ethical Markets Media, LLC
  211. Mary Beth Steisslinger - Integral Systems Biologist
  212. Steven Salmony - AWAREness Campaign on The Human Population
  213. Jim McClelland - 
  214. Josie O Pearse
  215. Dr Robert Davis
  216. Chris Beales
  217. Fiona Stanley
  218. Philip Harris
  219. Arvind Sivaramakrishnan
  220. Michael Taylor
  221. Freda Anderson
  222. Renuka
  223. soo chapman
  224. Sulley Abdulai Alhaji
  225. Antonio Sarmiento Galn
  226. DDS Raleigh
  227. Keith
  228. Keith Taylor MEP
  229. Geoffrey Beacon
  230. John Russell
  231. John Cossham 
  232. Nicholas Elwyn Allott
  233. Peter Noble
  234. soo chapman
  235. Luke Smith
  236. Jim Jin
  237. Brian Lewis
  238. Paul Ashford
  239. Reggie Norton
  240. Marcelo Michelsohn
  241. Chris Shaw
  242. Peter Challen
  243. Chiel Boonstra
  244. Wright, Steve
  245. Tim Willmott
  246. Miles Litvinoff
  247. Steve Kurtz
  248. Jonathan Essex
  249. Mathieu
  250. Adrian Hewitt
  251. marc roberts
  252. Ruth Jarman
  253. Stephen Sterling
  254. Emelia Queiroga
  255. Carolyn Roberts
  256. Peter Chisnall
  257. Morag Embleton
  258. Gordon Foat
  259. Jonathan Ward
  260. Jon Fuller
  261. Mark Jagdev
  262. Julian Huppert
  263. David Dougill
  264. Oisin
  265. Grahame Jordan
  266. Nic Lee
  267. donald takeshita-guy
  268. Stan Mowatt
  269. Mary Lidgate
  270. Judith Anderson
  271. Sue Hampton